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Some high concentrations of castles occur in secure places, while some border regions had relatively few castles. It is likely that the castle evolved from the practice of fortifying a lordly home.
The greatest threat to a lord's home or hall was fire as it was usually a wooden structure. To protect against this, and keep other threats at bay, there were several courses of action available: A bank and ditch enclosure was a simple form of defence, and when found without an associated motte is called a ringwork; when the site was in use for a prolonged period, it was sometimes replaced by a more complex structure or enhanced by the addition of a stone curtain wall.
These features are seen in many surviving castle keeps, which were the more sophisticated version of halls. They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area,  and formed a centre of administration, providing the lord with a place to hold court.
Building a castle sometimes required the permission of the king or other high authority. In the King of West Francia, Charles the Bald , prohibited the construction of castella without his permission and ordered them all to be destroyed.
This is perhaps the earliest reference to castles, though military historian R. Allen Brown points out that the word castella may have applied to any fortification at the time.
Switzerland is an extreme case of there being no state control over who built castles, and as a result there were 4, in the country.
From onwards, references to castles in texts such as charters increased greatly. Historians have interpreted this as evidence of a sudden increase in the number of castles in Europe around this time; this has been supported by archaeological investigation which has dated the construction of castle sites through the examination of ceramics.
Despite the common period in which castles rose to prominence in Europe, their form and design varied from region to region. The introduction of castles to Denmark was a reaction to attacks from Wendish pirates, and they were usually intended as coastal defences.
Their decoration emulated Romanesque architecture , and sometimes incorporated double windows similar to those found in church bell towers.
Donjons, which were the residence of the lord of the castle, evolved to become more spacious. The design emphasis of donjons changed to reflect a shift from functional to decorative requirements, imposing a symbol of lordly power upon the landscape.
This sometimes led to compromising defence for the sake of display. This has been partly attributed to the higher cost of stone-built fortifications, and the obsolescence of timber and earthwork sites, which meant it was preferable to build in more durable stone.
At the same time there was a change in castle architecture. The towers would have protruded from the walls and featured arrowslits on each level to allow archers to target anyone nearing or at the curtain wall.
These later castles did not always have a keep, but this may have been because the more complex design of the castle as a whole drove up costs and the keep was sacrificed to save money.
The larger towers provided space for habitation to make up for the loss of the donjon. Where keeps did exist, they were no longer square but polygonal or cylindrical.
A peculiar feature of Muslim castles in the Iberian Peninsula was the use of detached towers, called Albarrana towers , around the perimeter as can be seen at the Alcazaba of Badajoz.
They were connected to the castle by removable wooden bridges, so if the towers were captured the rest of the castle was not accessible.
When seeking to explain this change in the complexity and style of castles, antiquarians found their answer in the Crusades. It seemed that the Crusaders had learned much about fortification from their conflicts with the Saracens and exposure to Byzantine architecture.
An example of this approach is Kerak. Although there were no scientific elements to its design, it was almost impregnable, and in Saladin chose to lay siege to the castle and starve out its garrison rather than risk an assault.
The castles they founded to secure their acquisitions were designed mostly by Syrian master-masons. Their design was very similar to that of a Roman fort or Byzantine tetrapyrgia which were square in plan and had square towers at each corner that did not project much beyond the curtain wall.
The keep of these Crusader castles would have had a square plan and generally be undecorated. While castles were used to hold a site and control movement of armies, in the Holy Land some key strategic positions were left unfortified.
Both Christians and Muslims created fortifications, and the character of each was different. Saphadin , the 13th-century ruler of the Saracens, created structures with large rectangular towers that influenced Muslim architecture and were copied again and again, however they had little influence on Crusader castles.
The orders were responsible for the foundation of sites such as Krak des Chevaliers , Margat , and Belvoir. Design varied not just between orders, but between individual castles, though it was common for those founded in this period to have concentric defences.
The concept, which originated in castles such as Krak des Chevaliers, was to remove the reliance on a central strongpoint and to emphasise the defence of the curtain walls.
There would be multiple rings of defensive walls, one inside the other, with the inner ring rising above the outer so that its field of fire was not completely obscured.
If assailants made it past the first line of defence they would be caught in the killing ground between the inner and outer walls and have to assault the second wall.
For instance, it was common in Crusader castles to have the main gate in the side of a tower and for there to be two turns in the passageway, lengthening the time it took for someone to reach the outer enclosure.
It is rare for this bent entrance to be found in Europe. One of the effects of the Livonian Crusade in the Baltic was the introduction of stone and brick fortifications.
Although there were hundreds of wooden castles in Prussia and Livonia , the use of bricks and mortar was unknown in the region before the Crusaders.
Until the 13th century and start of the 14th centuries, their design was heterogeneous, however this period saw the emergence of a standard plan in the region: Arrowslits did not compromise the wall's strength, but it was not until Edward I's programme of castle building that they were widely adopted in Europe.
The Crusades also led to the introduction of machicolations into Western architecture. Although machicolations performed the same purpose as the wooden galleries, they were probably an Eastern invention rather than an evolution of the wooden form.
Conflict and interaction between the two groups led to an exchange of architectural ideas, and Spanish Christians adopted the use of detached towers.
These were the men who built all the most typical twelfth-century fortified castles remaining to-day". The new castles were generally of a lighter build than earlier structures and presented few innovations, although strong sites were still created such as that of Raglan in Wales.
At the same time, French castle architecture came to the fore and led the way in the field of medieval fortifications. Artillery powered by gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the s and spread quickly.
Handguns, which were initially unpredictable and inaccurate weapons, were not recorded until the s. These guns were too heavy for a man to carry and fire, but if he supported the butt end and rested the muzzle on the edge of the gun port he could fire the weapon.
The gun ports developed in this period show a unique feature, that of a horizontal timber across the opening.
A hook on the end of the gun could be latched over the timber so the gunner did not have to take the full recoil of the weapon. This adaptation is found across Europe, and although the timber rarely survives, there is an intact example at Castle Doornenburg in the Netherlands.
Gunports were keyhole shaped, with a circular hole at the bottom for the weapon and a narrow slit on top to allow the gunner to aim. This form is very common in castles adapted for guns, found in Egypt, Italy, Scotland, and Spain, and elsewhere in between.
Defences against guns were not developed until a later stage. In an effort to make them more effective, guns were made ever bigger, although this hampered their ability to reach remote castles.
By the s guns were the preferred siege weapon, and their effectiveness was demonstrated by Mehmed II at the Fall of Constantinople.
The response towards more effective cannons was to build thicker walls and to prefer round towers, as the curving sides were more likely to deflect a shot than a flat surface.
While this sufficed for new castles, pre-existing structures had to find a way to cope with being battered by cannon.
An earthen bank could be piled behind a castle's curtain wall to absorb some of the shock of impact. Often, castles constructed before the age of gunpowder were incapable of using guns as their wall-walks were too narrow.
A solution to this was to pull down the top of a tower and to fill the lower part with the rubble to provide a surface for the guns to fire from.
Lowering the defences in this way had the effect of making them easier to scale with ladders. A more popular alternative defence, which avoided damaging the castle, was to establish bulwarks beyond the castle's defences.
These could be built from earth or stone and were used to mount weapons. Around , the innovation of the angled bastion was developed in Italy. From this evolved star forts , also known as trace italienne.
The first was ugly and uncomfortable and the latter was less secure, although it did offer greater aesthetic appeal and value as a status symbol.
The second choice proved to be more popular as it became apparent that there was little point in trying to make the site genuinely defensible in the face of cannon.
However, it has been estimated that between 75, and , were built in western Europe;  of these around 1, were in England and Wales  and around 14, in German-speaking areas.
Some true castles were built in the Americas by the Spanish and French colonies. Fort Longueuil , built from — by a baronial family , has been described as "the most medieval-looking fort built in Canada".
Some retained a role in local administration and became law courts, while others are still handed down in aristocratic families as hereditary seats.
Tower houses , which are closely related to castles and include pele towers , were defended towers that were permanent residences built in the 14th to 17th centuries.
Especially common in Ireland and Scotland, they could be up to five storeys high and succeeded common enclosure castles and were built by a greater social range of people.
While unlikely to provide as much protection as a more complex castle, they offered security against raiders and other small threats. According to archaeologists Oliver Creighton and Robert Higham, "the great country houses of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries were, in a social sense, the castles of their day".
In later conflicts, such as the English Civil War — , many castles were refortified, although subsequently slighted to prevent them from being used again.
An example of this is the 16th century Bubaqra Castle in Bubaqra , Malta, which was modified in the 18th century. Revival or mock castles became popular as a manifestation of a Romantic interest in the Middle Ages and chivalry , and as part of the broader Gothic Revival in architecture.
This was because to be faithful to medieval design would have left the houses cold and dark by contemporary standards. Artificial ruins , built to resemble remnants of historic edifices, were also a hallmark of the period.
They were usually built as centre pieces in aristocratic planned landscapes. Follies were similar, although they differed from artificial ruins in that they were not part of a planned landscape, but rather seemed to have no reason for being built.
Both drew on elements of castle architecture such as castellation and towers, but served no military purpose and were solely for display. An earth and timber castle was cheaper and easier to erect than one built from stone.
The costs involved in construction are not well-recorded, and most surviving records relate to royal castles.
The source of man-power was probably from the local lordship, and the tenants would already have the necessary skills of felling trees, digging, and working timber necessary for an earth and timber castle.
Possibly coerced into working for their lord, the construction of an earth and timber castle would not have been a drain on a client's funds.
The high cost, relative to other castles of its type, was because labourers had to be imported. The cost of building a castle varied according to factors such as their complexity and transport costs for material.
It is certain that stone castles cost a great deal more than those built from earth and timber. It was usual for a stone castle to take the best part of a decade to finish.
All this takes no account of the garrison Of which there will have to be a great quantity The men's pay has been and still is very much in arrears, and we are having the greatest difficulty in keeping them because they have simply nothing to live on.
Not only were stone castles expensive to build in the first place, but their maintenance was a constant drain. They contained a lot of timber, which was often unseasoned and as a result needed careful upkeep.
Medieval machines and inventions, such as the treadwheel crane , became indispensable during construction, and techniques of building wooden scaffolding were improved upon from Antiquity.
Many countries had both timber and stone castles,  however Denmark had few quarries and as a result most of its castles are earth and timber affairs, or later on built from brick.
Brick castles are less common in England than stone or earth and timber constructions, and often it was chosen for its aesthetic appeal or because it was fashionable, encouraged by the brick architecture of the Low Countries.
For example, when Tattershall Castle was built between and , there was plenty of stone available nearby, but the owner, Lord Cromwell, chose to use brick.
Due to the lord's presence in a castle, it was a centre of administration from where he controlled his lands. He relied on the support of those below him, as without the support of his more powerful tenants a lord could expect his power to be undermined.
Successful lords regularly held court with those immediately below them on the social scale, but absentees could expect to find their influence weakened.
Larger lordships could be vast, and it would be impractical for a lord to visit all his properties regularly so deputies were appointed.
This especially applied to royalty, who sometimes owned land in different countries. To allow the lord to concentrate on his duties regarding administration, he had a household of servants to take care of chores such as providing food.
The household was run by a chamberlain, while a treasurer took care of the estate's written records. Royal households took essentially the same form as baronial households, although on a much larger scale and the positions were more prestigious.
As social centres castles were important places for display. Builders took the opportunity to draw on symbolism, through the use of motifs, to evoke a sense of chivalry that was aspired to in the Middle Ages amongst the elite.
Later structures of the Romantic Revival would draw on elements of castle architecture such as battlements for the same purpose.
Castles have been compared with cathedrals as objects of architectural pride, and some castles incorporated gardens as ornamental features.
Courtly love was the eroticisation of love between the nobility. Emphasis was placed on restraint between lovers. Though sometimes expressed through chivalric events such as tournaments , where knights would fight wearing a token from their lady, it could also be private and conducted in secret.
The legend of Tristan and Iseult is one example of stories of courtly love told in the Middle Ages. The purpose of marriage between the medieval elites was to secure land.
Girls were married in their teens, but boys did not marry until they came of age. This derives from the image of the castle as a martial institution, but most castles in England, France, Ireland, and Scotland were never involved in conflicts or sieges, so the domestic life is a neglected facet.
It was her duty to administer them directly, as the lord administered his own land. Because of their influence within the medieval household, women influenced construction and design, sometimes through direct patronage; historian Charles Coulson emphasises the role of women in applying "a refined aristocratic taste" to castles due to their long term residence.
The positioning of castles was influenced by the available terrain. Multiple factors were considered when choosing a site, balancing between the need for a defendable position with other considerations such as proximity to resources.
For instance many castles are located near Roman roads, which remained important transport routes in the Middle Ages, or could lead to the alteration or creation of new road systems in the area.
Where available it was common to exploit pre-existing defences such as building with a Roman fort or the ramparts of an Iron Age hillfort.
A prominent site that overlooked the surrounding area and offered some natural defences may also have been chosen because its visibility made it a symbol of power.
As castles were not simply military buildings but centres of administration and symbols of power, they had a significant impact on the surrounding landscape.
Placed by a frequently-used road or river, the toll castle ensured that a lord would get his due toll money from merchants. Rural castles were often associated with mills and field systems due to their role in managing the lord's estate,  which gave them greater influence over resources.
Fish ponds were a luxury of the lordly elite, and many were found next to castles. Not only were they practical in that they ensured a water supply and fresh fish, but they were a status symbol as they were expensive to build and maintain.
Although sometimes the construction of a castle led to the destruction of a village, such as at Eaton Socon in England, it was more common for the villages nearby to have grown as a result of the presence of a castle.
Sometimes planned towns or villages were created around a castle. During and shortly after the Norman Conquest of England, castles were inserted into important pre-existing towns to control and subdue the populace.
They were usually located near any existing town defences, such as Roman walls, although this sometimes resulted in the demolition of structures occupying the desired site.
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