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In , the Dutch authority investigating child pornography found out the IP address of a Tor hidden service site called "Pedoboard" from an unprotected administrator's account and gave it to the FBI who traced it to Aaron McGrath.
In August it was discovered [ by whom? The warrant alleges that Marques is "the largest facilitator of child porn on the planet".
In April , the Tor Project shut down the messenger project because the developers of Instantbird discontinued support for their own software.
Vuze formerly Azureus BitTorrent client,  Bitmessage anonymous messaging system,  and TorChat instant messenger include Tor support.
The Guardian Project is actively developing a free and open-source suite of applications and firmware for the Android operating system to improve the security of mobile communications.
Tor has been praised for providing privacy and anonymity to vulnerable Internet users such as political activists fearing surveillance and arrest, ordinary web users seeking to circumvent censorship, and people who have been threatened with violence or abuse by stalkers.
National Security Agency NSA has called Tor "the king of high-secure, low-latency Internet anonymity",  and BusinessWeek magazine has described it as "perhaps the most effective means of defeating the online surveillance efforts of intelligence agencies around the world".
Advocates for Tor say it supports freedom of expression , including in countries where the Internet is censored, by protecting the privacy and anonymity of users.
The mathematical underpinnings of Tor lead it to be characterized as acting "like a piece of infrastructure , and governments naturally fall into paying for infrastructure they want to use".
The project was originally developed on behalf of the U. State Department , the Broadcasting Board of Governors , and the National Science Foundation as major contributors,  aiming "to aid democracy advocates in authoritarian states".
Naval Research Laboratory , and the Government of Sweden. Tor executive director Andrew Lewman said that even though it accepts funds from the U.
Critics say that Tor is not as secure as it claims,  pointing to U. The citation read, "Using free software, Tor has enabled roughly 36 million people around the world to experience freedom of access and expression on the Internet while keeping them in control of their privacy and anonymity.
Its network has proved pivotal in dissident movements in both Iran and more recently Egypt. In , Foreign Policy magazine named Dingledine, Mathewson, and Syverson among its Top Global Thinkers "for making the web safe for whistleblowers".
In , Jacob Appelbaum described Tor as a "part of an ecosystem of software that helps people regain and reclaim their autonomy.
It helps to enable people to have agency of all kinds; it helps others to help each other and it helps you to help yourself.
It runs, it is open and it is supported by a large community spread across all walks of life. In October , The Tor Project hired the public relations firm Thomson Communications to improve its public image particularly regarding the terms "Dark Net" and "hidden services," which are widely viewed as being problematic and to educate journalists about the technical aspects of Tor.
In July , the Tor Project announced an alliance with the Library Freedom Project to establish exit nodes in public libraries.
Although the DHS had alerted New Hampshire authorities to the fact that Tor is sometimes used by criminals, the Lebanon Deputy Police Chief and the Deputy City Manager averred that no pressure to strong arm the library was applied, and the service was re-established on 15 September Surveillance has a very well-documented chilling effect on intellectual freedom.
It is the job of librarians to remove barriers to information. In August , an IBM security research group, called "X-Force", put out a quarterly report that advised companies to block Tor on security grounds, citing a "steady increase" in attacks from Tor exit nodes as well as botnet traffic.
In September , Luke Millanta developed and released OnionView, a web service that plots the location of active Tor relay nodes onto an interactive map of the world.
The project's purpose was to detail the network's size and escalating growth rate. In March , New Hampshire state representative Keith Ammon introduced a bill  allowing public libraries to run privacy software.
The bill specifically referenced Tor. The text was crafted with extensive input from Alison Macrina, the director of the Library Freedom Project. Lovecruft has legal representation from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
On December 2, , The New Yorker reported on burgeoning digital privacy and security workshops in the San Francisco Bay Area , particularly at the hackerspace Noisebridge , in the wake of the United States presidential election ; downloading the Tor browser was mentioned.
Tor and Bitcoin was fundamental to the operation of the darkweb marketplace AlphaBay , which was taken down in an international law enforcement operation in July The Russian-speaking underground offering a crime-as-a-service model is regarded as being particularly robust.
In June Venezuela blocked the Tor network, including bridge relays. On June 20, , Bavarian police raided the homes of the board members of the non-profit Zwiebelfreunde, a member of torservers.
The hardware and documentation seized had been kept under seal, and purportedly were neither analyzed nor evaluated by the Bavarian police.
By October , Chinese online communities within Tor have begun to dwindle due to increased efforts to stop them by the Chinese government.
Tor responded to earlier vulnerabilities listed above by patching them and improving security.
In one way or another, human user errors can lead to detection. The Tor Project website provides best practices instructions on how to properly use the Tor browser.
When improperly used, Tor is not secure. For example, Tor warns its users that not all traffic is protected; only the traffic routed through the Tor browser is protected.
Users are also warned to use https versions of websites, not to torrent with Tor, not to enable browser plugins, not to open documents downloaded through Tor while online, and to use safe bridges.
In fact, as late as September , FBI could not locate, de-anonymize and identify the Tor user who hacked into the email account of a staffer on Hillary Clinton 's email server.
The best tactic of law enforcement agencies to de-anonymize users appears to remain with Tor-relay adversaries running poisoned nodes, as well as counting on the users themselves using Tor browser improperly.
When properly used, odds of being de-anonymized through Tor are said to be extremely low. Tor project's cofounder Nick Mathewson recently explained that the problem of "Tor-relay adversaries" running poisoned nodes means that a theoretical adversary of this kind is not the network's greatest threat:.
Running a few computers to eavesdrop on a lot of traffic, a selective denial of service attack to drive traffic to your computers, that's like a tens-of-thousands-of-dollars problem.
At present the Tor network offers, out of a total of around 7, relays, around 2, guard entry nodes and around 1, exit nodes. Tor does not provide protection against end-to-end timing attacks: In addition to encrypting the data, including constantly changing IP address through a virtual circuit comprising successive, randomly selected Tor relays, several other layers of security are at user's disposal:.
Scripts on some sites may run slower. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 5 November This article is about the software and anonymity network.
For the software's organization, see The Tor Project, Inc. Infographic about how Tor works, by EFF. List of Tor hidden services.
Tor Browser on Linux Mint showing its start page — about: Windows XP and later Unix-like inc. Anarchism portal Cryptography portal Free software portal Freedom of speech portal Computer networking portal Information technology portal Internet portal Law enforcement portal.
Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 11 September Retrieved 20 September Network team update from Amsterdam". Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 14 January The New York Times.
Retrieved 13 May Retrieved June 11, Retrieved 5 October Ryge 3 July Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 17 August Instrument of Peace, Strength, Development and Prosperity.
Retrieved 29 August Inside Julian Assange's War on Secrecy. Tools and Techniques for Fighting Malicious Code.
Why is it called Tor? Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 23 September The Second-Generation Onion Router". Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 12 December The Tor Project's new executive director Shari Steele is on a mission to change the image of the group's anonymous browser and make its 'clunky and hard to use' technology more user-friendly".
Retrieved 9 May Hidden Services and Deanonymisation". Retrieved 20 June Global Politics and Strategy. Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 19 May Retrieved 30 July Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 6 February Tor a Big Source of Bank Fraud".
Retrieved 19 April United States of America v. She began a brief set of trials starting on 30 October. She returned to Norway in early November with a destroyer escort, arriving in Narvik on the 12th.
On 30 December, Lützow , the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper , and six destroyers left Narvik for Operation Regenbogen , an attack on convoy JW 51B , which was reported by German intelligence to be lightly escorted.
Lützow and the remaining three destroyers would then attack the undefended convoy from the south. Four of the other five destroyers escorting the convoy rushed to join the fight, while Achates laid a smoke screen to cover the convoy.
Kummetz then turned back north to draw the destroyers away. Captain Robert Sherbrooke , the British escort commander, left two destroyers to cover the convoy while he took the remaining four to pursue Admiral Hipper.
Lützow meanwhile steamed toward the convoy from the south, and at The harsh conditions negatively affected her shooting, which ceased by The cruisers engaged Admiral Hipper , which had been firing to port at the destroyer Obedient.
Burnett's ships approached from Admiral Hipper ' s starboard side and achieved complete surprise.
The British cruisers turned toward Lützow and came under fire from both German cruisers. Hitler was furious over the failure to destroy the convoy, and ordered that all remaining German major warships be broken up for scrap.
In protest, Raeder resigned; Hitler replaced him with Admiral Karl Dönitz , who persuaded Hitler to rescind the order to dismantle the Kriegsmarine's surface ships.
In March, Lützow moved to Altafjord , where she experienced problems with her diesel engines. The propulsion system proved to be so problematic that repairs in Germany were necessary.
She briefly returned to Norway, but by the end of September , a thorough overhaul was required. The work was completed in Kiel by January , after which she remained in the Baltic Sea to conduct training cruises for new naval personnel.
On 13 April , twenty-four Avro Lancaster bombers attacked Lützow and Prinz Eugen without success due to cloud cover.
The RAF made another failed attack two days later, but on 16 April, a force of eighteen Lancasters scored a single hit and several near misses on Lützow with Tallboy bombs in the Kaiserfahrt.
She continued in this role until 4 May,  by which time she had expended her main battery ammunition. Her crew rigged scuttling charges to destroy the hull, but a fire caused the explosives to detonate prematurely.
According to historians Erich Gröner and M. Whitley, the Soviet Navy raised the ship in September and broke her up for scrap in — From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other ships with the same name, see Deutschland disambiguation. FuMO stands for Funkmess-Ortung detection radar. See Williamson , p.
List of heavy cruisers of Germany. Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in April Awa Maru 2 Apr: U , U 9 Apr: U , Weser 12 Apr: Abele , U 13 Apr: Belgian Airman , U , U 15 Apr: U , U , U , U 16 Apr: Aquila , U , U , U 21 Apr: Davis , U , U 25 Apr: U , U , U , U 30 Apr: Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in Retrieved from " https: CS1 Russian-language sources ru CS1 German-language sources de Good articles Russia articles missing geocoordinate data All articles needing coordinates.
During the Civil War there were several incidents that touched Gibraltar. In June , the German pocket battleship Deutschland arrived in Gibraltar with dead and wounded after Republican planes bombed it in Ibiza in retaliation for the Condor Legion 's bombing of Guernica.
In August , the Republican destroyer Jose Luis Diez took refuge in Gibraltar after taking casualties from the guns of the Falangist cruiser Canarias.
The one incident that resulted in the death of Gibraltarians occurred in January when a submarine of unknown origin, though probably Italian, sank the SS Endymion , a small freighter taking a cargo of coal to Cartagena , which was in Republican hands.
They also converted the civilian golf course into an airfield. Spain's reluctance to allow the French Army onto Spanish soil frustrated a French plan to capture the Rock, codenamed Operation Felix , later named Llona.
In the s, Spain, under the dictatorship of Franco , renewed its claim to sovereignty over Gibraltar, sparked in part by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II in to celebrate the th anniversary of the Rock's capture.
For the next thirty years, Spain restricted movement between Gibraltar and Spain, in application of one of the articles of the Treaty.
Gibraltar's first sovereignty referendum was held on 10 September , in which Gibraltar's voters were asked whether they wished either to pass under Spanish sovereignty, or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government.
The vote was overwhelmingly in favor of continuance of British sovereignty, with 1,, to 44 voting to reject Spanish sovereignty. In response, in June Spain completely closed the border with Gibraltar and severed all communication links.
In it was announced that the honeymoon for the royal wedding between Prince William and Catherine Spencer would start from Gibraltar.
The Spanish Government responded that King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia had declined their invitation to the ceremony as an act of protest.
The border with Spain was partially reopened in , and fully reopened in prior to Spain's accession into the European Community.
Joint talks on the future of The Rock held between Spain and the United Kingdom have occurred since the late s under the Brussels Agreement.
A second sovereignty referendum was organised in Gibraltar in November , which rejected any idea of joint sovereignty by 17, The British Government restated that, in accordance with the preamble of the Constitution of Gibraltar:.
Lang-es , as it is termed by Spain, continues to affect Spain—United Kingdom relations. The Trilateral process is ongoing, and the British Government now states as policy that it will not enter into talks about sovereignty with Spain without the consent of the Government and people of the territory.
In December , Gibraltar won its EU case on regional selectivity providing for a new tax system. In May there were a number of Spanish incursions into British Waters around Gibraltar leading to intervention by the Police and a diplomatic protest by the UK.
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