2. Okt. Oktober , an dem Katalonien ein verbotenes Unabhängigkeitsreferendum abhielt. Ein Jahr danach gibt es sowohl in Barcelona als auch. 1. Okt. Das letzte Mal kam sie vor einem Jahr beim Referendum zum Einsatz, in einer Schule in Barcelona-Gracia, die zu einem Abstimmungslokal. Flaggen von Befürwortern der Unabhängigkeit in Barcelona. Am 1. Oktober wurde von der Regionalregierung Kataloniens ein umstrittenes.
barcelona referendum -Auf der im Ausland gehosteten Webseite der Regionalregierung war auch am In der Zwischenzeit hatten sich durch die spanische Wirtschaftskrise ab die Beziehungen der spanischen Regierung zum wirtschaftsstarken Katalonien zunehmend angespannt. La Generalitat improvisa un censo universal y sin sobres y la Guardia Civil lo bloquea. Polizisten schlossen Wahllokale, beschlagnahmten Abstimmungsunterlagen und hinderten Menschen mitunter mit Schlagstöcken und Gummigeschossen an der Stimmabgabe. September PDF, spanisch. How fake news helped shape the Catalonia independence vote , in: Gewalt könne kein Mittel der Politik sein. In anderen Projekten Commons. Dabei sollte sichergestellt sein, dass jeder Stimmberechtigte nur einmal wählen könnte. August in Kraft.
Referendum Barcelona VideoCatalan referendum: hundreds injured as police attack protesters
Referendum barcelona -Laut einer Einschätzung des Economist blieb die Gewalt insgesamt isoliert. Özdemir plädierte erneut dafür, dass die EU-Kommission diesen Gesprächsprozess unterstützt. Für die Unabhängigkeit hätten sich gut 90 Prozent der Wähler ausgesprochen, teilte der Sprecher der separatistischen Regionalregierung, Jordi Turull, in der Nacht zum Montag mit. September knapp zwei Wochen vor der vorgesehenen Abstimmung noch keine Liste der Abstimmungslokale abrufbar. Das von der rechtskonservativen Volkspartei PP angerufene spanische Verfassungsgericht erklärte Überblick über die tagesschau. Das spanische Verfassungsgericht hatte die Abstimmung zuvor für rechtswidrig erklärt, da die spanische Verfassung keine Abstimmungen über die Unabhängigkeit einer Autonomen Gemeinschaft vorsieht; die spanische Regierung versuchte, die Befragung mit Berufung auf deren mangelnde Rechtsgrundlage zu verhindern. Das von der rechtskonservativen Volkspartei PP angerufene spanische Verfassungsgericht erklärte Die Generalitat de Catalunya teilte als vorläufiges Wahlergebnis mit: Kataloniens Regierungschef Puigdemont verurteilte noch am selben Tag den Polizeieinsatz als unverantwortlich und als Schande, die Gewalt seitens des spanischen Staates werde die Katalanen aber nicht aufhalten;  ausländische Medien verurteilten durchgehend die Polizeigewalt. Jahrhundert Katalanische Geschichte Wahl Er hat selbst für das Referendum geworben, die spanische Polizei heftig wegen ihres Gewalteinsatzes angeprangert - und steht nun kurz vor dem Abschied aus der spanischen Nationalmannschaft. Die Anzahl der Verletzten ist umstritten. September , abgerufen am 6. Aus Barcelona berichtet Claus Hecking. Und einige brachten gar katalanische Flaggen mit - schon vor Francos Tod. Oktober ein Generalstreik in Katalonien ausgerufen. Analysis — As Scotland relaunches its independence bid, Catalonia has its own plan. Aus dem Archiv Barcelona: Bei einem Boykott hätte seinem Verein der Verlust von sechs Punkten gedroht, rechtfertigt sich Bartomeu.
The Catalan government indicated that 2,, votes were cast overall,  out of 5. Turnout estimates published by media outlets range between Turnout varied greatly across the 41 administrative districts of Catalonia.
The proportion of Yes-Yes votes over the total electorate ranged between Below is a table outlining the results of the referendum by district.
The table does not consider turnout. Catalan president Artur Mas said the vote was "a lesson in democracy. They are accused of serious civil disobedience and perverting the course of justice for having authorized the unofficial vote on November 9, in defiance of its prohibition by the Constitutional Court of Spain.
Prosecutors were calling for Artur Mas to be disqualified from office for 10 years, while Ortega and Rigau for 9.
The trial focused on the events since the suspension decided by the Constitutional Court on November 4, , until the beginning of the popular vote, on November 9.
In the event, in March Mas was barred from public office for two years by a court in Barcelona for organizing an illegal vote in defiance of the Spanish courts.
He was also fined 36, euros; Joana Ortega and Irene Rigau, were also convicted, barred 21 months and 18 months, respectively, as well as receiving lesser fines.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Catalan self-determination referendum, a Do you want Catalonia to become a state? Referendum results by district where saturation of colour represents the strength of vote.
Turnout is not taken into account. President list Joaquim Torra. Ministry of Home Affairs Police of Catalonia.
Catalan independence referendums, — Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 22 October Retrieved 28 September The "participation process" that replaced the "non-referendum consultation" maintained the same two questions.
Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 12 November No smiles for Spain". Retrieved 11 November Referendum in " in Catalan. Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 13 December Archivado desde el original el 10 de septiembre de Archivado desde el original el 2 de abril de Archivado desde el original el 19 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 31 de octubre de Consultado el 4 de octubre de Consultado el 14 de septiembre de Consultado el 18 de septiembre de Consultado el 19 de octubre de Consultado el 15 de septiembre de Consultado el 2 de octubre de Consultado el 8 de octubre de Consultado el 19 de junio de Thu Oct 06 Consultado el 29 de junio de Consultado el 8 de septiembre de Consultado el 7 de octubre de Consultado el 17 de septiembre de Consultado el 28 de septiembre de Ruiz Coll 15 de septiembre de Consultado el 13 de septiembre de Consultado el 16 de septiembre de Consultado el 22 de septiembre de They are being investigated for alleged crimes of sedition for their role in organising these massive protests aimed at hindering the Civil Guard investigation.
We ask that you dissolve this demonstration, as best as you can, very calmly, today, in a few minutes". According to the source this happened around In the following days, the Spanish Civil Guard and the Spanish National Police were reinforced with police officers from the rest of Spain, which are expected to reach 16, police and military police officers distributed in different Catalan cities on 1 October and would continue to carry out searches in companies that allegedly had referendum ballots or ballot boxes.
A conference named Referendum yes or yes that was going to be held in Vitoria-Gasteiz on 15 September was forbidden by the courts after a request from the Spanish government.
The speakers, including the pro-independence deputy Anna Gabriel , disobeyed the ruling and tried to hold the conference anyway, but the room were it was taking place was evicted by the police five minutes after starting.
In the days previous to the referendum, the Spanish civil guard shut down more than websites following a court order issued by the High Court of Justice of Catalonia , including the official one from the Catalan government and the main site of the Catalan civil organization ANC.
The Catalan Government announced it planned to hold the referendum on 1 October According to the Catalan government, the following people were entitled to vote in the referendum: The question of the referendum was asked "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?
The referendum was attended by several international observers. Of these international observers, those summoned by Diplocat are not recognised by the UN as such in not recognising this Diplocat as an international observer.
Due to some alleged irregularities and to the actions taken by the national police and civil guard, the international observers, invited by the Generalitat, declared that the referendum results could not be considered valid as the process failed to meet the minimum international standards for elections.
They also criticized the police violence. On 23 September, the UN Independent Expert on the Promotion of a Democratic and Equitable International Order, Alfred de Zayas , issued a media statement  where he advocates for the right of self-determination of Catalan people, reminding "[t]he Spanish Constitution itself stipulates in its articles 10 and 96 the supremacy of international law and in particular international human rights law over of domestic law" and that "self-determination is not limited to the decolonisation context".
Pollsters generally started using the proposed referendum question "Do you want Catalonia to be an independent state in the form of a republic?
In its March poll, aside from asking respondents whether they would want Catalonia to become an independent state, it asked their intents in the event of a referendum on the independence of Catalonia being called and organised by the Government of Catalonia without agreement from the Spanish Government.
In a July poll a similar question was proposed, with the difference that it asked about the actual 1 October referendum. The Catalan government estimated that polling stations representing up to , potential voters— Earlier in the day, a universal census was introduced, so any Catalan elector going out to vote could do so at any one of the still functioning polling stations.
Due in part to the deactivation and repeated blocking by the police of the computer programs used to implement universal census and result reporting,  some alleged irregularities were reported by Spanish media during the celebration of the referendum.
Among them, people recorded voting more than once, votes made by non-Catalan people not included in the census or an image of a child casting a vote in the ballot box.
The Catalan government was not allowed to use the same ballot boxes used in other elections and referendums because they are owned by the Spanish government, so different ballot boxes were used,  those were described as translucent by some media and opaque by some others in contrast to the transparent ballot boxes used in elections.
There was no electoral board as it dissolved itself on 22 September to avoid being fined by the Constitutional Court and the counting system was blocked by the Guardia civil following orders from the Catalan High Court Justice.
The Spanish Government denounced that the rules of the referendum got changed 45 minutes before the opening. They also accepted the use of non-official ballots printed at home and made optional the requirement of using envelopes.
In 71 municipalities the number of "yes" votes tallied were more than the number of registered voters for those municipalities, which could be partly explained by the "universal census" system introduced earlier in the day allowing people to vote in a different poll station than the one they were assigned.
The Civil Guard delivered a report to the Spanish High Court with recordings of conversations that allegedly demonstrate that "the results of the referendum were decided in the days leading up to its holding".
In the elections of December called by Spanish Prime Minister, parties supporting independence got On 3 October , Carles Puigdemont said that his government intends to act on the result of the referendum "at the end of this week or the beginning of next" and declare independence from Spain.
Puigdemont would go before the Catalan Parliament to address them on Monday 9 October , pending the agreement of other political parties.
On 4 October , Mireia Boya , a lawmaker of the Popular Unity Candidacy CUP , announced that a declaration of independence would likely come after the parliamentary session on 9 October.
The King of Spain, Felipe VI , called the Catalan referendum "illegal" and appealed to the union [of Spain], calling the situation "extremely serious.
According to Swiss national radio, the Foreign Ministry of Switzerland has offered to mediate between the two sides in the crisis.
It also made clear that Switzerland fully respects Spanish Sovereignty and that in any case any facilitation of the process could only take place in case that both sides requested it.
The Spanish police and Guardia Civil mounted operations to close the polling stations. The security forces met resistance from citizens who obstructed their access to the voting tables; in Sant Julia de Ramis, where Puigdemont was expected to vote,  they were joined by Corps of Firefighters of Catalonia members who formed a "human shield" separating the police from civilians to help obstruct their access to the polling station.
According to the Ministry of the Interior , rubber bullets balls were only used against demonstrators in one of those incidents in the Barcelona's Eixample district.
The Spanish government endorsed the police actions ordered by the regional high court. Various images and reports used to magnify the claims of police violence were circulated but were later found to be inaccurate or photoshopped ,      and reports argued later that such posts, as well as conspiracy theories, had been amplified through the same network of social network profiles that had earlier promoted alt-right and pro-Putin views during earlier elections in Western countries.
According to the judge, there were persons injured on that day in the city of Barcelona alone, 20 of whom were agents.
Of those injured, most were minor, but four people were hospitalised by the emergency health service and of those, two were in serious condition, one due to impact from a rubber ball in the eye in the protests, the other for unrelated causes..
There was a police charge near school Ramon Llull. When police officers tried to enter inside the polling station, voters responded with a sit-in protest to block their way in.
Few minutes later more anti-riot police was deployed in the zone and they could find the way in after breaking the polling station door. Police officers confiscated the ballot boxes, some of them with votes inside.
In their way out, voters blocked the passage of the police cars standing or sitting in front of the police vehicles. The Police didn't provide medical reports for some of them and didn't explain how they were produced.
The Mossos d'Esquadra have been accused of failing to execute the direct order issued by the High Court of Justice of Catalonia and not closing the voting centers before the voting commenced, or not confiscating voting materials on the day of the poll.
According to the final report by the Catalan Health Service CatSalut of the Generalitat, there were 1, people attended by the Catalan hospitals in connection with the Catalan Referendum: On 20 October , the last injured person left the hospital.
Regarding the age distribution: This figures include 12 police officers: As of August the spread between Spanish year government debt and German bonds was close to its narrowest in seven years; however, since the start of July the yield on the Catalan regional government's bonds had jumped by about 50 basis points,  signaling unease among investors in regards to the referendum issue.
The Spanish Property Insight web portal quoted a real estate agent as saying, "The number of foreign buyers in Barcelona fell from a record level in September to zero in the first two weeks of October".
Stratfor suggested financial market disruption is due to the political upheaval. It'll take quite a bit longer to assess where this is going and what this will mean, how the EU will react, how the Spanish government will react.
So I don't think you'll see people adjusting their portfolios on Monday, but you could get the classic knee-jerk, risk-off reaction.
On 10 October in a speech in front of the Catalan parliament Puigdemont stated that he considered the referendum results to be valid and in consequence used the following wording: In response the Central government made a formal request for him to answer before the Monday 16 October if he declared independence asking specifically for yes or no answer clarifying that any answer different than a "no" would be interpreted as a "yes".
Since he refused to abandon his independence push, on 21 October the Spanish government initiated the implementation of article of the Spanish constitution.
On 27 October , the Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain. The measure is intended to be temporary; its claimed objective being to "re-establish the rule of law" and restore autonomy after new elections.
On 16 January , the Spanish Constitutional Court issued a temporary restraining order regarding the work of the Catalan Government commission that investigates the violation of fundamental rights in Catalonia.
Different sources describe aspects of the events differently according to their political stance. TV3 covered the referendum and the police violence regularly while TVE mainly emphasised the Spanish government's position on its legality.
Various media reported on fake images of police violence against civilians that were posted in social networks. Later investigations by Medium-DFRL said it found support for some but not all of the arguments made by Spanish outlets.
Those two being the first and the third top-sellers in the category of non-fiction in Catalan language during the Diada de Sant Jordi of On 15 June, the exhibition 55 Ballot Boxes for Freedom opened in Brussels, with artwork inspired by the ballot boxes of the Catalan referendum.
Netflix used images from the police action during the day of the referendum to promote Black Mirror series in Spain.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
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Catalan self-determination referendum, ; Catalan regional election, ; and Declaration of the Initiation of the Process of Independence of Catalonia.
Reactions to the Catalan independence referendum, This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
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